Actinidia kolomikta: planting and care

actinidia kolomikta planting and care Blog

Actinidia, its features and useful properties

Actinidia kolomikta is a perennial woody climbing plant, liana. Stems and young shoots wrap around the support to a height of 7-8 m.

Useful properties of actinidia berries are well studied. Berries contain a record amount of ascorbic acid or vitamin C: more than 1000 mg per100 g berries, i.e. 3-4 times more than in blackcurrant.

The daily human need for vitamin C is satisfied by two actinidia berries. The annual human need for the berries of this crop1.5 kg.

When ripe, the berries become dark green, soft, tender, have a sweet and sour or sweet taste with a strong pineapple aroma. The harvest of berries from one bush is 1-2 kg.

Actinidia blooms late – in June; the critical temperature for flowers is 0 – 1 degrees. After the return of spring frosts, the plant easily restores foliage from dormant buds.

It begins to bloom in the fifth year of life: in male plants, male (staminate) flowers appear, in female plants, functionally – female, having small stamens and a large pistil. The sex of plants does not change throughout life.

It is recommended to have 5-7 female plants and 2 male plants in the garden plot.

Growing actinidia on a trellis

Cultivation of actinidia is necessarily carried out on a support – a trellis with a height of at least 2 mOtherwise, growth and fruiting are delayed. In one place, actinidia bears fruit for more than 50 years, that is, it is a practically irreplaceable culture.

It is recommended to plant in partial shade, but away from other trees.

The best place to plant this creeper is an elevated area with a slope, along the perimeter of the garden.

Planting dates – in the spring, before bud break, and in the fall, at rest.

Distance between rows 3-4 m, between plants in a row 1.5-2 m.

Seedlings are obtained by green cuttings. Cuttings with three buds 6-8 cm long are cut from mother plants in June, at the beginning of the browning of the bark. It is better to root in greenhouses with a small layer of sand.

Proper planting of actinidia

Plants can be planted in a permanent place in the second or third year of life, at a distance2 mone from the other. Adult bushes can not be transplanted.

Planting holes should be60 cm, 60-70 cm deep. Half a bucket of pebbles or small stones is poured onto the bottom, then fertile garden soil mixed with one bucket of humus; contribute200 g superphosphate, 50 g ammonium nitrate, 70-80 g of potassium chloride.

A seedling from the nursery is dug up and transferred for planting in a hole, without drying and without destroying a clod of earth with roots.

Landing is carried out in a hole on a hillock, without deepening and without exposing the root collar. After watering and sedimentation of the soil, the root neck should be level with the ground.

Tied to the trellis the next year after planting. In dry weather, plants are sprayed with water in the morning and evening, and mulched around the stem with dry soil or peat chips.

Reproduction of actinidia, rules for caring for seedlings

Reproduction of actinidia can be carried out by semi-lignified and lignified cuttings, layering, seeds. When propagated by seeds, plants begin to bear fruit much later than when grown from cuttings and layering.

Care of seedlings consists in regular fine loosening, adding soil to the root collar.

  • You can not dig the soil in the near-trunk circle.
  • Actinidia does not tolerate the introduction of lime, grows well on acidic and slightly acidic soils.
  • Responds well to the introduction of humus or compost in early spring or autumn after harvest.
  • It is impossible to remove plants from the trellis for the winter.

In the first year of life, seedlings are covered with fallen leaves with a layer of 10-15 cm and spruce branches; further grown without shelters.

In the spring, pruning is not carried out. Mandatory reception is thinning of the crown during green cuttings in June.

Actinidia flowers are pollinated by wind and insects.

As you can see, caring for actinidia is not that difficult.

Collecting and processing crops

The berries do not ripen in August at the same time, they can crumble. The best way to pick berries every day is to stretch gauze under the plants on pegs and pick ripe berries from it.

During flowering, part of the leaves of actinidia kolomikta becomes variegated – first white, then crimson. This phenomenon is not a disease, and there is no need to fight it.

The only serious enemy of actinidia is domestic cats. Young plants in the first two years after planting are protected from them with a metal mesh.

In the homeland of these plants, in the forests of the Far East, leaves and fruits are affected by fungal diseases, so you need to plant only healthy planting material. Sick leaves are cut off and burned.

You can grow actinidia not only in the southern regions, but even in the Urals. As the data show, in the Urals you can collect up to8 kg berries from the bush.

Fresh actinidia berries have a number of useful properties, they are used as a dietary product – a source of vitamin C. They are especially useful for children and with allergies to citrus fruits.

Jam, jam, juice, raw jam are prepared from berries, they are dried and dried. Dried berries are also a concentrate of vitamin C. The jam retains a high content of ascorbic acid throughout the year.

For making jam 1 kg berries take 1-1.5 kg of granulated sugar, it is advisable to add 3-4 lemons or oranges.

It is recommended to use actinidia berry juice and raw jam (1 kg berries and 1.5 kg granulated sugar).

Lianas actinidia kolomikta form hedges on trellises and have an elegant appearance due to variegation, they can be planted near arbors, terraces, stepping back from the wall on 1.5 m.

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