The Baby pomegranate is a dwarf deciduous shrub 40–90 cm high. The pomegranate is native to Asia and the Mediterranean countries. Shoots are straight, thin, leaves are small, narrow, oblong, pointed at the top. The color is bright green, the surface is glossy. On the branches, the leaves are arranged oppositely, turn yellow in autumn and fall off with the onset of winter. In the spring, new young foliage grows in their place.
By shedding leaves, the pomegranate also responds to stressful situations. In order for the shrub to please the eye with its luxurious appearance, it needs to provide comfortable growing conditions.
Flowering occurs in the first year of life. The flowering period begins in May and lasts until September. On one tree, two types of flowers grow at once:
- the first – in appearance resembles a water lily and has a pistil and stamens. From such flowers ovaries are formed;
- the second is in the shape of a bell. This type of ovary does not form and performs a decorative function.
Large flowers, 40 mm in diameter, have a bright red color. Flowers on the branches are arranged singly, or in groups of 5 to 7 pcs. The life span of a flower is up to three days.
Inflorescences generally do not produce fruit. Out of a hundred inflorescences, only 3-4 will give an ovary. The fruits are small – 70 mm. Fruit color ranges from orange to bright red. Fruiting occurs in the second year of life, and the fruits ripen in November. They are used in food and for making sauces, added to meat and fish dishes.
- Seed preparation
- Planting seeds
- Indoor pomegranate care
- pomegranate transplant
- Varieties of pomegranate grown at home
- eighth ball
- Punica Nana
- Gulosha pink
- Gulosha red
- Ak Dona Crimean
- Reproduction of pomegranate cuttings
- Useful properties of pomegranate
- Problems in growing pomegranate
- Diseases and pests
Seeds purchased in a specialized store must be soaked in the growth stimulator “Optim-Gumus” for 20 minutes before planting, then spread out on a paper towel to dry. Before planting, they are treated with a 1% potassium permanganate solution to avoid the risk of disease.
Seeds can also be collected by yourself. To do this, you need to choose ripe pomegranates without damage and signs of mold. The pomegranate should have a thin skin through which the grains can be felt.
The grains selected from the pomegranate must be pricked with a needle in several places, put in a glass container, pour water and leave for 2-3 days.
When the pulp separates from the seeds, they must be washed well under running water and dried.
To select seeds suitable for cultivation, they are soaked for 20 minutes in a saline solution. Those that float to the surface are removed, as they are not suitable for sowing and will not give seedlings. Those that have sunk to the bottom are washed, soaked in a growth stimulator.
For growing pomegranate, it is better to use a clay container of not very large dimensions, with the obligatory presence of holes to remove excess moisture. Saturate expanded clay at the bottom of the container as drainage. The layer thickness is at least 2 cm. The container is filled with a soil mixture consisting of ingredients mixed in equal proportions:
- garden soil;
- peat ;
Ready soil must be kept in a microwave oven for 20 minutes to destroy pathogenic microbes and insect larvae.
Seeds are sown to a depth of 1 cm, moisten the soil and cover the container with polyethylene to create greenhouse conditions. The container is placed in a well-lit warm place. Such a place can be a windowsill located on the south side. Polyethylene should be removed daily for 10 minutes to ventilate the seedlings and moisten the soil as needed. Warm, settled water is used for moisturizing.
Indoor pomegranate care
For the successful cultivation of a healthy plant, it is necessary to carry out the following care:
- The room where the pomegranate grows must be ventilated daily.
- If the seedlings have two true leaves, they must be transplanted into a larger pot, shortening the root by 1/3.
- When the third pair of leaves appears, the fourth must be pinched in order for the plant to grow in the form of a bush. In this case, the pomegranate bush will have two crowns. If you want to grow a pomegranate in the form of a tree, it is necessary to pinch the crown again when three pairs of leaves grow on new shoots.
- In the presence of good lighting, the pomegranate will bloom ten months after planting. However, it is necessary to shade the plant from direct sunlight. With a lack of lighting, the branches begin to stretch excessively, the foliage becomes rare, pale in color. In good light, the leaves have a rich color and densely cover the stems.
- In the summer, it is recommended to take the plant out into the fresh air, placing it in a well-lit, draft-protected place.
- The soil must be kept slightly moist. Watering is carried out under the root with a watering can, trying not to fall on the leaves. Water for irrigation must be defended for at least a day. The water temperature should be two degrees higher than the room temperature. During the flowering period, the amount of watering is reduced.
- At the seedling stage, to stimulate growth, pomegranates are watered with an ash solution diluted in the following proportion:
- ash – 1 teaspoon;
- water – 1 liter.
During the growth period – from spring to autumn, the plant is fed every two weeks with diluted chicken droppings.
- If it is impossible to provide additional lighting, the plant is placed in a cold room with a temperature of up to +10 degrees, arranging hibernation for the plant.
- When transplanting an adult plant, organic fertilizers are applied to the soil every year. In addition, the pomegranate does not need additional feeding.
- In the autumn, the plant must be given a rest. To do this, it is taken out into a room with a temperature of + 17-18 degrees.
- For good flowering growth and fruiting, pomegranate requires regular pruning and pinching. If the pomegranate is grown in the form of a bush, then it is formed by four main branches. If the plant is grown as a tree, then there should be five skeletal branches. In the future, no more than five branches of the second order are left on each main branch. Excess shoots, as well as root shoots, are removed. During growth, old branches that have ceased to bear fruit are cut out.
Transplantation is carried out if the container becomes cramped, and the overgrown pomegranate needs a larger pot, as well as when transplanting into open ground. In order for this procedure to be painless for the plant, certain rules must be observed:
- During the first three years, transplantation is undesirable. Plant growth at this time is not too intense, and young plants are hard to transplant.
- When the plant grows shoots that need to be transplanted, it is carried out annually in the spring.
- If the volume of the pot is large and there is enough space for the pomegranate bush, then the transplant should be done once every three years. If the containers are small, then the plant is transplanted every year.
- When transplanting , the soil must be changed, since it is depleted during the period of growth.
- Before use, the soil must be kept in a microwave oven for 20 minutes to kill spores of harmful bacteria and insect larvae.
- If the pomegranate does not belong to dwarf varieties, it must be transplanted into a greenhouse after a winter rest in early spring. The planting hole should be dug the same size as for fruit trees. To plant a pomegranate, the soil is mixed with manure.
- When transplanting into open ground, care must be taken that there is no close occurrence of groundwater on the site, since the pomegranate prefers an arid climate and does not tolerate stagnant moisture in the soil.
- Watering after transplantation is carried out every 7-10 days. It is also necessary to periodically irrigate the plant with water. This allows you to remove dust from the leaves and moisten the ground part of the plant.
- If the plant does not require transplanting, it is necessary to replace the upper part of the soil and apply organic top dressing.
Varieties of pomegranate grown at home
This variety is most suitable for growing at home. Thanks to constant pruning, the height of the tree can be kept within 70 cm. In the absence of haircuts, the branches become thinner, and small shoots growing inside the crown give the plant a unkempt appearance. The plant ceases to bloom profusely. With proper care, good lighting and moderate watering, this type of pomegranate bears fruit every year.
When grown at home, the plant grows up to 200 cm high. The fruits are spherical in shape, weighing up to 110 grams, have a bright red color. The peel is thin, grains of burgundy color have a sweet-sour taste.
The height of the representative of this variety is 70 cm. It got its name for the rich red color of the flowers.
This variety was bred by American breeders. It got its name due to its resemblance to the eight ball in billiards. It has an excellent taste and dark purple, close to black color.
Plant height up to 100 cm, with regular pruning no more than 30 cm. Very similar to a garden pomegranate, only smaller with small leaves and small fruits, no more than three cm in diameter
The following varieties are most often grown in gardens:
The shape of the fruit is round. The rind is red in color with stripes clearly defined at the top. Grains of sweet and sour taste, large dark red.
Ak Dona Crimean
The variety was bred by breeders of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. Bushes require shelter in winter. The fruits are thin-skinned, oval in shape. Cream-colored skin with red spots. The grains are red-pink, have a sweet taste with a barely noticeable sourness.
Reproduction of pomegranate cuttings
Propagation by cuttings has several advantages:
- cuttings cut from young shoots take root well, are immune to diseases;
- retain all the characteristics of the parent plant;
- grow more actively.
For reproduction use:
- lignified cuttings – chopped in February;
- semi-lignified – cut in mid-summer.
The cuttings must be more than 10 cm long and have at least four buds. For the speedy growth of the roots, they are soaked in a solution of the Heteroauxin preparation for 12 hours.
After soaking, the cuttings are planted in moist soil at an angle, and for better rooting they are covered with a cut plastic bottle. The bottle is removed daily for a short period of time to ventilate and moisten the soil. During rooting, it is necessary to ensure that the substrate is slightly moist at all times.
Useful properties of pomegranate
Pomegranate has many beneficial properties for the body, due to the fact that it contains:
- vitamins – B12, B6, P, K, C;
- acids – oxalic, tartaric, citric, succinic, malic, boric;
- salts – sulfate, chloride;
- nitrogenous substances.
Ancient healers used tinctures from pomegranate fruits and flowers as a hemostatic agent.
Pomegranate seeds are recommended to use for recuperation in the postoperative period.
Pomegranate juice has the following properties:
- strengthens the walls of blood vessels;
- increases hemoglobin;
- strengthens the nervous system;
- promotes the formation of red blood cells in the blood;
- quenches thirst;
- boosts immunity.
Vitamin K contained in pomegranate promotes the absorption of calcium, improves metabolism in bones and connective tissues, relieves inflammation of cartilage tissues.
The estrogen contained in pomegranate juice relieves the symptoms of menopause, helps reduce depression.
Recommended as a good remedy for:
- bowel disorders;
Doctors recommend drinking pomegranate juice for:
- bronchial asthma;
A decoction of pomegranate peel is a good antiparasitic agent, and its use is indicated for inflammation:
Peel powder roasted in olive oil is used for healing:
Along with useful properties, pomegranate also has a number of contraindications. It is not recommended to eat pomegranate when:
- duodenal ulcer and stomach;
- people with problems of the digestive system (causes constipation).
If the peel decoction is abused, the following problems may occur:
- increased blood pressure;
- deterioration of vision.
Problems in growing pomegranate
In the process of growing a plant, a gardener may encounter the following problems:
- Yellowing of leaves. The presence of this problem is due to increased air temperature and lack of moisture in the soil. In this case, dark spots appear on the leaves. If a problem is detected, it is necessary to reduce the temperature in the room and increase the frequency of watering.
- Leaves are falling. The reason for the fall of the leaves may be the high temperature in the room. However, we should not forget that the pomegranate is a deciduous plant, and this can be a natural process.
- Leaves dry. The cause of this problem may be increased dryness of the air in the room, or problems with the root system resulting from a violation of watering conditions. If the soil smells of dampness, it is likely that moisture has stagnated in the soil, which has caused root rot. In this case, it is necessary to remove the plant, remove the rotten parts of the root, sprinkle the cut points with crushed coal and transplant the plant into a new substrate.
- The plant drops fruits. When this problem is detected, top dressing must be applied. The plant does not have enough strength for their growth. You also need to make sure that the plant has enough light and heat.
Diseases and pests
- aphid ;
- spider mite;
To combat aphids, you must prepare the following composition:
- tobacco – 40 grams;
- hot water – 1 liter.
The solution is insisted for two days, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2, 4 grams of grated laundry soap are added to it and the plant is treated with it.
When whiteflies, spider mites and scale insects are found on the plant, the plant is treated with an infusion of husks prepared as follows:
- onion peel – 20 grams;
- water – 1 liter.
Insist for five days, then filter and process the plant.
The mealybug is disposed of with the help of the drug “Confidor”. The plant must be treated three times every 6 days.
- gray rot;
- cancer of roots, branches;
- leaf spot.
Root and branch cancer manifests itself in the form of cracks in the bark and on the roots of the plant. In places of cracks porous outgrowths are formed. Branches and shoots dry out. If a problem is detected, the growths are cleaned to healthy tissues, treated with a solution of copper sulphate, and the damaged areas are lubricated with garden pitch. The disease can occur as a result of mechanical damage to the bark of a tree.
Gray rot affects the plant with excess moisture and low temperatures. If a problem is found, it is necessary to treat the plant with 1% Bordeaux mixture.
A self-grown pomegranate can be the pride of any gardener. There is a belief that a pomegranate grown by the caring hands of the owner will bring harmony and prosperity to the house.