Corn is a valuable plant
Sweet vegetable corn is tasty and healthy. The grains of milky ripeness contain proteins, starch, fats, vitamins B1, B2, PP, C, and ripe, yellow grains and provitamin A – carotene. There are also mineral salts – phosphorus, calcium, iron, corn proteins are rich in amino acids. Sweet corn is superior in calories to green peas and vegetable beans, which is probably why its grains are called heroic.
Sweet corn is also valued as a medicinal plant. It is known that atherosclerosis is less common in areas where corn and rice predominate in the diet. Extracts from its stigmas are widely used in diseases of the liver, gallbladder, kidney stones and cystitis. That is, sweet corn contains a lot that can make us healthier, but the trouble is: it is not always possible to grow corn in the country.
What is this animal?
Sweet sweet corn is not that capricious, just do not forget about its features, because it comes from America, and therefore it is demanding on heat (seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of plus 8-10 ° C, and for its normal growth you need 18-24 ° ; she does not tolerate frost at all, she needs a short daylight hours.When the daylight hours are more than 12-14 hours, the flowering and ripening periods are delayed, she loves the sun and does not tolerate shading, especially at the beginning of the growing season, she needs soils that are light, fertile, airy and permeable and very fond of fertilizer corn, especially when it forms cobs.
Corn is a monoecious plant with heterosexual flowers. The panicle at the top of the stem is male flowers, female flowers are located in longitudinal rows in the cells of the cob – a cylinder enclosed in a shell. This is how fertilization occurs: at the beginning of flowering, female flowers – long columns with stigmas – outgrow the shell of the cob and hang down in the form of threads. In order for the cob to be filled with grain, the pollen of the male must fall on each female flower. But the trouble is (and this is a feature of corn) that male flowers bloom earlier than female ones, and some of the latter remain unpollinated, unfertilized. That is why many cells of the cob are empty. To prevent this from happening, additional pollination has to be applied: pollen is transferred from male flowers to female flowers with gauze, and this must be repeated several times. Or a week after the first sowing, additional sowing is carried out. And you can sow some plants with seeds, and plant some with seedlings. Or grow two or three varieties of corn with different flowering periods.
How to plant, grow, harvest…
If the cultivation of corn in the country is carried out by sowing in open ground, then it should be sown no earlier than mid-May. Sometimes the seeds are soaked, and when they swell, they stand for three days in the refrigerator for hardening. Sow deep into furrows4 cmif the soil is heavy, and 8 cmif the soil is light, 2-3 seeds in 30-40 cm or 1-2 seeds in 15-20 cm. Row spacing 60-70 cm. In the true leaf phase, seedlings are thinned out, leaving 1-2 plants in the nests.
In the Non-Black Earth region, seedling technology for growing sweet corn is used, its conditions are as follows: seeds are soaked for 2-3 days in mid-May, kept in a dark place laid out on cloth, then sown in seedling pots, 1 seed each. Seedlings are grown for 15-20 days at a temperature of about 13 ° C. 3-4 days before planting in the ground, the seedlings are hardened in the open air, brought into the room for the night, and the seedlings are planted when the threat of recurrent cold weather has passed (in late May – early June). The most suitable technology is square-nest.
To provide good conditions for corn, it needs organic fertilizers. Therefore, humus or compost is always brought under it: in the fall, for digging, from 1.5 to5 kg on the 1 sq. m. She also needs mineral fertilizers: 30-50 g superphosphate and 10-20 gpotassium nitrate (also in autumn). In early spring, they bring in for loosening20 gammonium sulfate. It is useful to add organic matter directly to the wells – a half-liter jar per well, mixed with a glass of ash.
Caring for sweet corn requires, first of all, regular loosening: 4-5 days after sowing, the rows are loosened for the first time; the second time they loosen until 3-4 true leaves appear, then another 2-3 times and simultaneously hill the plants (corn easily forms adventitious roots and after hilling development improves, the plants become more stable, do not lie down). From the wind, sometimes they put supports under each trunk. Stepsons that appear in the axils of the lower leaves are removed when they reach5 cm. For care, timely watering is also necessary – they both improve the yield and increase the quality of the grain. The first watering – in the phase of 9-10 leaves, then – when panicles appear, during the period of grain formation. These irrigations are mandatory. At the end of June, plants can be fed with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer. This is best done before rain or before watering. In order for plants to pollinate better, they must be gently shaken during flowering.
Harvesting occurs selectively, as the cobs reach milky ripeness. Here are the signs of ripening: the edges of the wrapper dry out, the mottled threads turn brown, the rows of grains close. The readiness of the cob can be checked by crushing the delicate amber grain with a fingernail. The fluid that comes out, whitish and oily, is what is called milky ripeness. Cobs are used immediately: boiled, canned, frozen. It must be remembered that one day after harvesting, sweet corn loses half of its sugar at a temperature of 30 ° and 17% at a temperature of 10 °