Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse
Tomato seedlings are planted in greenhouses no earlier than May 1-10. At this time, the risk of night frosts is still high, so you can additionally insulate the greenhouse with a couple of layers of film. An air gap of several centimeters thick is left between the layers of the film. Tomatoes are grown in greenhouses and greenhouses of various designs. However, the answer to the question “how to grow a good crop of tomatoes in a greenhouse” is not in the quality of the greenhouse, but in the proper care of the plants. One of the main rules for growing tomatoes is not to plant tomatoes in the same greenhouse every year. This leads to the accumulation of diseases and reduced yields. In addition, it is not advisable to grow tomatoes in the same greenhouse with cucumbers as they share common diseases. If you have only one greenhouse in which you want to grow both tomatoes and cucumbers, then you need to make a partition from the film in it.
The technology of growing tomatoes in greenhouses begins with preparing the soil in a greenhouse or greenhouse. The beds where the seedlings will be planted must be prepared in advance, 7-10 days before planting the tomatoes. The soil is prepared depending on the type of soil in the greenhouse, if the soil is loamy, it should be loosened by adding peat, humus and sawdust, if the soil is peaty, it is worth adding coarse sand and humus to it. For one square meter, you need to add 1-2 glasses of wood ash, 1 teaspoon of sodium nitrate and 3 tablespoons of superphosphate. After fertilization, the soil is dug up. Before planting tomato seedlings of the ridge, spill it with a warm solution of potassium permanganate. The distance between tomato bushes in the garden should be at least 40 cm for low-growing varieties and at least 60 cm for tall ones. Seedlings are planted in holes,
Caring for tomatoes after planting consists in watering, loosening, feeding. It is better to postpone watering for the first two weeks after planting. After that, the plants need to be watered regularly, preventing the soil from completely drying out on the ridges. Excess moisture leads to damage to the fruit and a decrease in their size. During the flowering period, 5 liters of water per square meter is enough; during the ripening of the fruits, this rate triples. When the seedlings harden and grow, you can start tying it up to a trellis up to 2 m high. Most often, tomatoes are formed into one stem, no more than eight brushes are left on one plant, otherwise the fruits may simply not have time to ripen.
Grasshopping is the main method of forming tomato bushes. Carry out pinching in the morning, at this time the shoots break easily. Break out the extra shoots carefully so as not to damage the plant. The first feeding of tomatoes is done weeks after planting the seedlings. For the first feeding, use a mixture of 0.5 liters of mullein and 1 tablespoon of nitrophoska, diluted in 10 liters of water. Each plant requires 1 liter of such a solution. After 10 days, a second feeding is carried out. To do this, dissolve 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate and 1 tablespoon of complex fertilizer in 10 liters of water. The feeding rate with this solution is 5 liters per square meter. The final, third feeding is carried out after another two weeks. This time the fertilizer contains 2 tablespoons of wood ash and 1 tablespoon of superphosphate, which are dissolved in 10 liters of water and applied at 8 liters per square meter. During the ripening of the fruits, you can feed the tomatoes with a solution of sodium humate, this will speed up the ripening process. Planting tomatoes must be accompanied by regular ventilation of the greenhouse. The side and top vents are opened for ventilation. In sunny weather, the tomato should be pollinated by gently shaking the flower brushes.
When growing tomatoes indoors, gardeners often face some problems. Sometimes tomato plants begin to “fatten”, the upper leaves curl up, the plants grow actively, the tomato stems become thick, the leaves are juicy, but the fruits are not tied on such plants. This is due to too much watering and excess nutrients, as well as due to insufficient lighting. In order to solve this problem, you need to stop watering for 7-10 days, raise the temperature, and also properly pollinate the flowers. In order to slow down growth, you need to feed the plant with superphosphate (3 tablespoons of superphosphate per 10 liters of water).
If flowers and fruits fall on the plant, then the reason is most likely too high temperature in the greenhouse, poor ventilation and lighting. In this case, you can save the plant by watering it by lowering the temperature in the greenhouse or greenhouse and ventilating the greenhouse.
Another problem is the setting of fruits only on the lower cluster of the plant, in order for the growth of fruits on the second and subsequent clusters to accelerate, it is necessary to harvest the first cluster as soon as possible, even if the fruits did not have time to turn red. Water the plants immediately after harvesting and lower the temperature in the greenhouse, especially at night. Under these conditions, the harvest on the second and subsequent clusters will form much faster.
Growing tomatoes outdoors
Growing tomatoes outdoors is a risky business, but if you do not have a greenhouse, you should still try to get a good harvest of tomatoes, and we will reveal some secrets and tell you how to plant tomatoes in open ground and how to properly care for them. The timing of planting tomato seedlings in open ground differs from the timing of planting when grown in greenhouses and greenhouses. In addition, these terms may be different not only in different regions, but also in different areas. Planting tomatoes in the ground is usually carried out when the threat of frost has passed, in the first decade of June. If later frosts are predicted, it is better to cover the beds with seedlings with film or non-woven material overnight. It is better to plant tomatoes in open ground where nightshade crops did not grow, legumes are the best predecessors for tomatoes, green crops and various root crops. In order for tomatoes in the open field to be healthy, and the fruits on them to be large, you need to set aside a sunny area for tomatoes, protected from the wind. It is better not to use low and damp areas for growing tomatoes, since it is almost impossible to grow a large crop in such a place.
The tomato is not so picky about the nutritional value of the soil, but this does not mean that fertilizers do not need to be applied to the soil for planting tomatoes. If the soil on the site is loamy or sandy loam, then mineral and organic fertilizers must be applied before planting. The nutrient requirement of tomatoes increases as the green mass grows. Most of all tomatoes need nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Tomatoes are especially demanding on the phosphorus content in the soil, therefore, superphosphate is first of all introduced into the soil for planting tomatoes. The source of nitrogen can be manure, and the source of potassium is potassium sulfate. The ridges prepared for planting must be shed with a hot solution of potassium permanganate (1 gram per 10 liters of water).
Now we plant seedlings. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that we plant tomato seedlings strictly vertically, filling only the hole with soil. Tall varieties are rarely grown outdoors, so tomatoes should be placed at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other. It is better to start watering the seedlings 2 weeks after planting. Immediately after planting, the seedlings must be shaded from the sun’s rays. It is better to plant seedlings in the afternoon or in cloudy weather.
When growing seedlings in open ground, one cannot do without pinching, although many early varieties can do without it, it is better not to neglect this operation. The stepchildren are removed when they have not yet reached a height of 3-5 cm; when larger stepchildren are removed, the plant is injured. When the fruits begin to ripen on the first brush, the lower leaves must be removed. Caring for tomatoes in the open field consists of weeding and loosening the soil, regular watering and feeding. In the open field, the fight against diseases and pests of tomatoes is especially relevant.
The key to success when growing tomatoes in the open field is not only competent care, but also the right choice of variety. In order to provide yourself with tomatoes and not to fail, you should pay attention to early and ultra-early varieties of low and medium-sized tomatoes that are resistant to late blight and low temperatures. The best varieties for open ground are “Far North”, “Snowdrop”, “Taimyr”, “Bullfinch”, “Gina”, “Dubok”, “White filling”.
Growing tomatoes on the balcony and windowsill
If you do not have a personal plot, but you want to feel like a real gardener, you can grow tomatoes on the balcony or on the windowsill.
Ordinary tall varieties are not suitable for growing at home, it is better to choose for this indoor and balcony low-growing varieties – “Balcony Miracle”, “Garden Pearl”, “Micron”, “Little Red Riding Hood”. Although, if you equip a mini-garden on the balcony, you can grow tomatoes such as cherry, “Bull’s Heart”, “De Barao” and other indeterminate varieties. For planting tomatoes on the windowsill, you can take a ready-made potting mix that is sold in the store. Transplanting seedlings into pots to a permanent place requires preparation: a drainage layer is poured into a pot with a volume of about 3 liters, then the ground, the ground level should not reach the edges of the pot by 2 cm.
When growing tomatoes on a balcony or on a windowsill, you should especially carefully monitor the temperature regime and regular ventilation. The optimum temperature for growing tomatoes in a room is 25-28 degrees during the day and 15-16 degrees at night. Be sure to ventilate the plants 2-3 hours after watering. Tomatoes are light-loving plants and are not afraid of direct sunlight, so they need to be placed on the lightest windowsill. Indoor tomatoes are watered regularly, preventing the soil from completely drying out; after watering, the soil in pots and boxes is loosened.
You can feed home tomatoes with any complex fertilizer; foliar dressing has a good effect on the harvest. You can take out tomato seedlings from the windowsill to the balcony at the beginning of May if the balcony is closed, and not earlier than May 15 if the balcony is open. As with growing in a greenhouse or outdoors, tomatoes require a peg tie. If the tomato bushes grow very quickly, and a three-liter pot is not enough for them, another transplant will be required in a more spacious container. Tomatoes are self-pollinating plants, but you can easily shake the flower brushes for more fruit to set. If tomatoes are poorly ventilated and kept at high temperatures, they are at risk of fungal diseases. To avoid them, you can spray the plants with Bordeaux mixture.