What kind of plant is a hazelnut?
Did you know that the most caloric of all nuts is FUNDUCK? The kernels of these nuts contain 65-72% high-quality oil, 16-21% protein, 3.5% sugar, vitamins B and B and minerals. Kernels have a good taste. Eat them raw, dried or fried. Decoction of leaves is drunk when prostate hypertrophy, nuts are used when urolithiasis. In addition, hazelnuts are used for fixing slopes, and red-leaved forms are used for decorative purposes. It looks especially beautiful in solitaire plantings. If the area of the plot allows, plant just one plant with purple leaves in the center of the lawn, and it will look great. All these advantages explain the growing interest of gardeners to such a plant as hazelnut, its cultivation is available to everyone, and it brings considerable benefit.
Hazelnut or hazelnut is an early flowering plant. In the middle or second half of April, when the snow has not yet melted and the leaves on the trees haven’t opened, hazel is in a hurry to bloom: the sepals of male flowers stretch and loosen, and the clouds of pollen are easily carried by the wind from one shrub to another. For normal fruiting, the hazel needs cross-pollination, so two or three bushes should be planted on the plot.
Seedlings flower in the 5th-7th year, seedlings in the 3rd-4th year. The nut has a rounded or elongated shape with a hard shell; the top is covered with a mashed panel (wrapper) of fused leaves. Fruits ripen in September and easily fall out of the ivy. Flower buds of hazelberry set annually, but because of unfavorable conditions bears fruit periodically. The yield of dried nuts varies from 0.5 to 3 kg per bush. The highest yield is at the age of 10-15 years. The trunks of the bush live 25-40 years.
What hazelnuts like
Hazelnut is resistant to low temperatures. In the north, it can withstand frosts down to – 50 ° C. And even if it freezes, it quickly recovers within the next two years.
The cultivated form of hazel adapts well to growing conditions. It is shade tolerant, but grows and bears fruit better in sufficient light. If there is too much shade, young branches dry out and yields are drastically reduced. It grows well on sufficiently moist gray forest soils with low or neutral acidity, responds to the content of lime in the soil. If the soil is acidic and podzolic, then a year before or before planting, lime is applied at the rate of 500 g per 1 m2. The soil is recultivated on the bayonet and a half of a spade. Then make holes 60×50 cm, filling them with topsoil. At the same time, fertilizer (200 g of superphosphate, 50 g of potassium salt), embedding them in the upper and middle layers. Autumn is the best time for planting. On the garden plot, hazelnut bushes can be placed near the outhouse, on the shady side of the cottage or at the entrance to the plot, or they can be planted instead of the hedge along the edge of the plot. Since planting hazelnut is not so difficult, more and more gardeners are getting hold of this useful plant.
Planting and caring for seedlings properly
How to plant hazelnut properly? Planting is carried out with 2-year-old seedlings, preferably with a rump of earth. The plants are watered, and when the water is absorbed, the holes are mulched with peat or humus. The layout of the seedlings is 5×4 or 4×4 m.
To enhance the growth of root branches and the further formation of the bush, the above-ground part of the seedlings after planting is cut at a height of 25 cm from the soil surface. For the first 5-6 years, vegetables, gourds or strawberries can be grown between the bushes. When the hazel tree bears fruit, after the bushes are closed, the soil is kept under natural sodding, but the grass must be mowed. At first the soil is systematically loosened to a depth of 5-7 cm, mulched grass, in winter dig over 10-15 cm.
The hazelnut root system is well developed and has a large number of small ramifications. It is located on the surface, but individual roots penetrate into the soil to a depth of 1-1.5 m. Ledum’s roots have mycorrhiza, i.e. special soil fungi that can replace absorbing root hairs, so when planting plants in new plots 100-200 g of soil taken from under its bushes in the forest is added to the hole.
In the garden, it is better to use a complex fertilizer (nitrophoska) on young plantings up to 5-6 years at the rate of 30-40 g, on fruit-bearing – up to 100 g per 1 mg. Organic fertilizer is made once every
2-3 years at the rate of 10 kg per 1 m2. Fertilizing with urea 0.5% concentration during fruit setting and ovary growth is desirable. Watering for walnut is required only in dry years. Then water 3-4 times. The first time immediately after flowering, the second in June, the third in July during the filling of the kernel, the fourth watering – moisture-charge – after leaf fall.
How to grow hazelnut knows many people, but how to form it correctly? Fruit-bearing bushes should have 8-10 trunks, evenly arranged at the base. Thickening and shading shoots and branches, as well as broken, weak and underdeveloped are removed in a timely manner. When pruning and shaping bushes should be especially careful to ensure that each branch is well lit. And start with thinning on the 3-5 year after planting. On bushes properly formed at a young age, further cutting consists of annual removal of stumpy growth, dry and mechanically damaged trunks and branches. On fruit-bearing bushes cannot be shortened one-year shoots, because it is on them that the harvest is formed.
After 20-25 years of age, bushes are rejuvenated by removing 2-3 trunks annually and leaving 2-3 young shoots instead. This is done constantly for several years.
Harvest the nuts in September, when they acquire a light brown color and begin to fall out of the bunches. Harvested nuts are dried. To do this, they are spread out in a thin layer in a room with good ventilation and are often stirred.
The main pests of hazel – nut weevil, soil mite, caterpillars, aphids, scabs – settling on soil, leaves, flowers and fruits, weaken plants, delaying their growth and reducing yield. Shrubs are protected against them by spraying with Inta-Vir.
The first time before the buds blossom, the second time – after the blossoming of the leaves. Against fungal diseases of the kernel, treatment with colloidal sulfur in a concentration of 1.5-2% is done.
Hazelnut can be propagated by seeds, offshoots and root shoots. For seed propagation, nuts collected from the best bushes are taken and sown in autumn or spring. Autumn sowing is carried out in late September on a well-cleaned and loose bed. The depth of embedding is 4-6 cm, the distance between the rows is 20 cm. Per linear meter of row sow 40 to 50 nuts. The rows are mulched with humus. For the spring sowing, nuts should be stratified for 3-4 months. To do this, they are mixed with sand, peat or sawdust and kept until sowing in the snow or the basement at a temperature of + 1 … – 5°С. Before placing the seeds in the cellar, they are kept for two weeks at a temperature of +18-22°C. Stratified seeds are sown in the ground in early May. Sprouts appear amicably. Seedlings are not on the surface and remain in the soil. Seedlings care consists of loosening the soil and systematic watering and removing weeds. Annual seedlings by the fall reach a height of 20-30 cm, sometimes up to 80 cm. Seedlings are planted in the permanent place at the age of 2 years.
To obtain offshoots annual branches in the spring are placed in shallow ditches and pinned with hooks to the soil. The top of the branch length of 10-15 cm vertically hung on a peg. When shoots begin to grow from the buds of the pinned branch, they are dipped. Hazel branches root slowly. To speed up root formation, tie two or three rings of soft wire around the base of the growing shoots. Rooted offshoots are separated from the mother bush and allowed to grow for another year.
Root shoots arise in or near the root neck area. Several branched roots form at the base of root shoots. Such shoots are carefully separated from mother bushes in spring and transferred to a new planting place. In order to induce the growth of annual shoots, cut down part of the bush. For amateur gardeners, this is the most acceptable option, as it is easiest to grow hazelnut from the shoots.
For the winter, the skeletal branches of the hazelnut tree are ducked to the ground. This will protect the male earrings from freezing. With the onset of winter, the branches are covered with snow, and lifted in spring after its thawing.