Marigolds or Tagetes, the flowers of the sun, are one of the favorite flowers of the inhabitants of big cities, where they feel great in flower beds, living borders, and arabesques. For unpretentiousness, summer residents and villagers love them no less.
By origin Marigolds are natives of Central and South America, where they are represented by both annual and perennial species. Marigold inflorescences are simple or terry baskets of a wide range of colors and patterns: from white, pale greenish to lemon yellow, golden, orange and brown. The foliage is very fragrant, leaf-eating pests do not eat it, they are even afraid of the smell of Tagetes.
- Variety of types of marigolds
- What variety of Tagetes to plant?
- Upright (high) varieties:
- Rejected grades (low):
- Where are the seeds located and when to harvest them
- How to grow marigolds
- When to sow Marigolds for seedlings and in open ground
- Preparing seeds for sowing
- How to sow marigolds for seedlings?
- Seedling care and diving
- Planting marigolds in flower beds
- Sowing in open ground
- Caring for marigolds in the open field
- pot culture
Variety of types of marigolds
Botanical descriptions are made for more than 50 species of Marigolds. The most widely distributed Marigolds are clove-flowered, with reed flowers. Chrysanthemum marigolds have tubular flowers. Tall species – Upright marigolds. The types of flowers they have are simple, double or semi-double. Recently, many interspecific hybrids have been created that are characterized by dwarfism or, on the contrary, vigorous growth, unusually light color of flowers, size of baskets and other decorative properties that are actively used in landscape design.
What variety of Tagetes to plant?
Upright (high) varieties:
Star Oracle – forms sprawling bushes up to 50 cm high, the length of the central peduncle is 20 cm, flowers are terry baskets of dark yellow color with a diameter of up to 5 cm. An average of 20 flowers are formed on a bush. Duration of flowering is not less than 100 days. The variety is resistant to adverse conditions of the urban environment. Recommended for the northwestern, central and central black earth regions.
Sunbeam – plant height over 75 cm, large pyramidal bush over 50 cm in diameter. Flowers – dark yellow baskets over 10 cm in diameter. From the beginning of sowing to flowering requires 2 months.
Rejected grades (low):
Milady – a plant 40 cm high, grows strongly, the central leader is clearly expressed. Flowers – small baskets up to 5 cm in diameter, very numerous, double, brown-red. The variety is shade tolerant and drought tolerant.
Makkena’s Gold – plant height 30 cm, sprawling bush. The flowers are small crowned baskets of red-orange color. Very unpretentious ornamental variety.
Orange carpet – a plant no higher than 25 cm, flowers – densely double baskets, flat-round, more than 5 cm in diameter, bright orange, yellowish. Resistant to the conditions of the urban environment.
Where are the seeds located and when to harvest them
In inflorescences – baskets, the lower part is elongated, the ovary is located in it. Tubular median flowers transform into flattened linear seeds of black, gray or brown. They are often dense, but can also be soft, from small sizes (5-7 mm) to large ones – 1.2-1.5 cm. Marigolds are distinguished by very long flowering, for 4-5 months.
Seeds should be harvested from the largest flowers, most clearly expressing the decorativeness of the variety. Such flowers usually form around the middle of the season – July and August. Selected flowers are marked and left on the stem as long as possible so that the base of the basket dries to a light sandy color. Baskets are carefully torn off and over a napkin, slightly rubbing, seeds are poured out, scales and dried sepals are cleaned, wrapped in a bag, signed and stored in a cool, dry place for no more than 3-4 years.
How to grow marigolds
Marigolds can be grown in three ways:
- Sowing seeds for seedlings, followed by planting in open ground;
- Direct sowing of seeds in open ground;
- In pot culture.
The seedling method and pot culture allow you to get flowers very early and create flower arrangements from marigolds that will delight throughout the summer. By the end of summer, the plants noticeably age and lose their decorative appearance. When sown in the ground, flowers appear later, not earlier than July, but lush flowering and a highly decorative appearance of the plant are guaranteed before the onset of frost.
When to sow Marigolds for seedlings and in open ground
The timing of sowing depends on the variety of Tagetes, which was chosen for cultivation. Before everyone else, you need to sow Tagetes erect (the highest). They are characterized by slow growth and require an average of 90 days from sowing to flowering. Low Tagetes are sown approximately 45-50 days before the desired flowering time. If it is planned to dive seedlings, then you need to add an average of 5 days to the growing period before flowering, which the plant will need to acclimatize after diving. So, the timing of sowing marigolds for seedlings:
- Tall – from January 15 to February 15 (beginning of flowering April 20-May 20);
- Undersized – from February 15 to March 15 (beginning of flowering April 15 – May 10).
Dwarf Tagetes with large double flowers should be sown about 2 months before the expected flowering time. Plants look very decorative in early spring with a height of 15-20 cm with one large flower. A dwarf variety is used to create flower beds with a geometric pattern of plants.
Seeds are sown in open ground at an early date, at an average daily air temperature of 15-18 ° C. Atmospheric frosts are not terrible for seedlings. If ground frosts are expected, crops should be covered with plastic wrap or light agrofibre. In the southern regions, sowing is carried out in early April, in the central zone – in early May.
Preparing seeds for sowing
Marigold seeds do not require special preparation. Soaking seeds is not recommended as they can rot from waterlogging. Before sowing, the seeds should be sorted out, the smallest and feeble ones should be discarded.
How to sow marigolds for seedlings?
Seedlings of Marigolds are best sown in a bunch in a small container with further diving into separate pots or cassettes. It is good to sow in a mini-greenhouse with a transparent lid. The bottom of the container is pierced in several places to drain water and fill it with soil 4-6 cm in height, water it well and leave it so that the water is well absorbed. When the irrigation water is absorbed and drains, a small groove is made 1.5-2 cm deep and the seeds are sown thickly, the groove is slightly leveled and sprayed with a spray bottle. The container is covered with a film or a lid, cleaned in a warm place with a temperature of 22-24 ° C. Under such conditions, seedlings should appear within 5-7 days. After germination, the film or cover is removed, the seedlings are removed to a room with a lower temperature: 18-20 oFROM.
Seedling care and diving
If sowing is carried out early, in January-February, then young plants may suffer from a lack of light. A container with marigolds should be placed in the most sunlit place, fed with humic fertilizers. To prevent seedling disease, it should be sprayed with Alirin B. If it is not possible to place the seedlings in a sunny place, then they need to be illuminated with high-power fluorescent or LED lamps. It is enough to provide plants with 14-15 hours of light per day.
Starting from the first true leaf and up to about the third leaf phase is the optimal period for Marigolds to dive . To make the plants spacious, choose cassettes with cells of 7×7, 8×8 or 10×10 cm. Styrofoam or vermiculite is placed at the bottom of the cells for drainage, then fertile soil is poured. The mixture is prepared as follows: 3 parts of garden soil are mixed with 1 part of peat and 1 part of sand. When the cassettes are filled with soil, they are watered so that the water soaks the entire layer well. When the water drains and the soil is slightly crumbly, they begin to plant the plants in the cells.
It is impossible to deepen the Tagetes to the cotyledon leaves. Plants will suffer and get sick for a long time after transplantation. They need to be planted at a depth that will provide seedlings with stability in the ground, the stalk should remain approximately the same as it was in the general container. After the plants adapt to the new conditions, they will quickly get stronger and their central stem will quickly become powerful. During the period of seedling growth in individual cells before planting in flower beds, they are fertilized 1-2 times with humic fertilizer under the root or by watering over the leaves.
Planting marigolds in flower beds
The landing dates for Marigolds in the south are from April 20 to May 10, in the central regions and the Moscow region – from May 20 to June 10. Marigolds are very unpretentious, but for them you need to choose a sunny place with permeable soil. Soils with stagnant moisture, hard, clayey, infertile are not suitable for Tagetes. Plants will be stunted, underdeveloped, and the flowers will be small and faded. Planting scheme for tall varieties: 40×40 cm and more, undersized 25×25 and more.
Marigold pairs well with bright red salvias and balances them out in color saturation. For 3 red flowers, at least 5-6 yellow or orange should be taken. Marigolds are surprisingly well combined with Petunias of different shades. Small-colored undersized varieties create patterns in Arabic-style flower beds.
Sowing in open ground
The technology for sowing Marigolds in the garden is generally the same as for seedlings. Initially, they need to be sown in a group in a shallow groove, and then pricked into a permanent place. After sowing, the bed is covered with a film . Before planting, Marigolds are well watered, then the entire group of seedlings is dug up and planted one at a time in holes in a permanent place. Plants cannot be buried.
Caring for marigolds in the open field
The main rule to remember when caring for Tagetis is moderation in everything: very moderate watering and top dressing. Loosening and weeding of flower beds is carried out only until the rows close. When the leaves completely cover the space of the flower bed, you should not loosen the soil, it is enough to control large weeds. In extreme heat Marigolds in the evenings can be watered by sprinkling from above. Drops of water will wash the dust off the leaves and fill the air with the scent of Tagetes. As they fade, the flowers need to be carefully cut, it is possible with several leaves to form bushes along the way.
Very popular in recent years is the cultivation of flowers in large pots and tubs, which are put on balconies, in porches, along fences. For pot culture, it is necessary to select the soil more carefully. It must be fertile and provide a long flowering bush. The most suitable varieties with a pronounced central leader on a high peduncle, white-colored or with delicate greenish flowers.
It should be noted that the tops of Marigolds are good for laying so-called warm beds in trenches , the substances contained in the leaves heal the soil.
Marigolds are very easy to grow both from seedlings and direct sowing in open ground. Be sure to try to grow these flowers, they will delight with their flowers in any weather and in any light. And pot culture will delight you in the city.