Increased areas under collective orchards and individual vegetable gardens, in the absence of control of pests, diseases and weeds, can become serious reservoirs of harmful organisms.
Recently, we, as specialists and state plant protection inspectors, have begun to face another problem – the untimely and ill-considered use of plant protection chemicals in the garden. Fortunately, chemicals can now be bought everywhere. This can lead to serious consequences – the accumulation of residual amounts of poisons in products and poisoning of humans and animals.
Mistakes in the use of chemicals in the country
Quite often we are faced with the misuse of chemical plant protection products. For example, some complain that they did not achieve an effect in the fight against scab by treating apples with karbofos, infusions of pepper and wormwood. Others complain that they sprayed the trees 10 times with different preparations, as a result, the fruits fell off, the leaves dried up. Unfortunately, such examples, when the use of chemicals does not give the desired effect, are not isolated. And it is not the drugs that are to blame, but those who use them or use them for other purposes and without observing the consumption rate.
Chemical means of protection are not omnipotent: they can give an effect when agricultural technology is observed, varieties are grown, if not completely resistant, then at least relatively little susceptible to harmful organisms.
Unfortunately, already when laying the site, many make mistakes, which subsequently cause the mass reproduction of pests and diseases. The desire to plant as many different crops as possible on four or six acres is understandable, and gardeners do this without considering that plants also need living space.
While the plantations of fruit trees and berry bushes in the garden are young, this error does not seem to be noticeable. But then grief begins: trees and bushes close, berry bushes form thickets. Little light enters the site, aeration is disturbed, the soil warms up poorly, and the activity of beneficial soil organisms decreases.
After the closing of the crowns and the growth of berry bushes, the planting area for annual crops decreases, which limits the crop rotation.
If, in addition, the owner of the garden does not prune trees and bushes, does not thin out crowns, does not remove fallen leaves and affected fruits, does not remove weeds and various debris, then the possibility of the appearance of foci of pests and diseases increases more and more. Under such conditions, the use of even the best chemicals does not give positive results.
The effect of the use of chemical and biological means of protection can be high if they are used strictly for their intended purpose, taking into account their action against a particular pest, stage of development.
So, karbofos does not suppress scab pathogens, but only reduces the number of first instars of leafworms, hawthorn and sawflies, at the same time it is non-toxic for older larvae (caterpillars), butterflies, and eggs of these insects.
Decoctions and infusions of the fruits of bitter varieties of capsicum are recommended to combat aphids, suckers, slugs; a decoction of wormwood has a detrimental effect on the caterpillars of the codling moth, the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle. However, these infusions and decoctions do not affect the development of scab.
Chemical plant protection products in the garden should be used as a last resort, when it is not possible to reduce the number of pests in other ways.
It should be noted that many crops in the garden are not allowed to be treated with pesticides – dill, parsley, parsnips, celery and other green crops, as well as onions for feathers, strawberries and raspberries during the fruiting period.
The buyer needs to know that the trading organization must have a license for the right to trade in pesticides, and the packaging of the drug or the attached instructions should contain the relevant information: a list of crops allowed to be processed, drug consumption rates for each crop, frequency of use, the last treatment period.
The pesticide label must have the registration number of the State Chemical Commission.
The drugs produced do not have a universal effect, some can be used against pests, others against diseases of horticultural and horticultural crops.
Plant protection products
We offer a brief classification of chemical and biological preparations used to increase plant immunity and protect against damage from pests and diseases in personal subsidiary plots:
- Insecticides are chemical and biological agents for the control of harmful insects.
- Acaricides are chemical agents against ticks. Insecticides and acaricides are not used for preventive purposes. They are used directly against harmful stages of insects and mites that have inhabited plants.
- Rodenticides are preparations for the control of rodents.
- Fungicides are preparations for the control of plant diseases. Some drugs of this group are effectively used for prophylactic purposes against the wintering stages of pathogens. The main part of fungicides has a contact action, i.e. protects the treated plant from infection by pathogens. Their contact infected plants are not treated. Therefore, it is important to apply fungicides at the very beginning of the manifestation of diseases.
- Biotechnical agents are color and glue traps and sex pheromones (substances that attract male harmful insects). These tools are used to identify, trap and destroy adults of certain types of harmful insects.
- Growth regulators are chemical and biological agents used to increase the immunity of plants and regulate their growth.
- Herbicides are means for controlling weeds. The use of herbicides requires special care, because if the technology is violated, cultivated plants may suffer. Therefore, more often they are recommended to be used before planting or after harvesting cultivated plants. In summer, herbicides must be used with extreme caution, directed at vegetative weeds.
How and when to treat plants?
It is necessary to process plantings with protective equipment at certain periods, it is especially necessary to strictly observe the terms of treatments during the growing season. Do not spray during the flowering of the crop – this can lead to the death of bees and other beneficial insects. Before starting work, be sure to mow weeds.
Processing is best done in the early morning hours, in calm weather. Do not spray before or immediately after rain.
It is necessary to strictly observe the terms of the last treatments (waiting period), since chemical agents can accumulate in plant products, and it takes time for the drug to decompose before the removal of fruits and vegetables.
In order not to pollute the environment and products with residual amounts of chemical protection products and not cause leaf burns, it is necessary to strictly observe the consumption rates of drugs, the frequency of use, etc.
In individual gardens, hand-held hose sprayers are used for treatments. Solutions should be applied to plants evenly, especially carefully on the underside of the leaves, where pests and pathogens are more common. First spray the top, then the middle and finally the bottom of the crown.
The consumption of working fluids of plant protection products depends on the area of plant foliage. When spraying young trees, up to 2 liters of solutions are consumed per plant, fruiting trees – from 5 to 10 liters, currants and gooseberries – up to 1.5 liters per bush, raspberries – up to 2 liters per 10 bushes, strawberries – up to 1.5 liters per 10 m of plantings, vegetables and potatoes – up to 1 liter per 10 m.
Particular attention should be paid to safety when working with pesticides. Working solutions are prepared in special containers that cannot be used for other purposes, especially for storing drinking water, feed and food. To work with pesticides, special clothing (gowns, boots, gloves) should be allocated and protective equipment (cotton-gauze bandages) should be prepared. Do not eat, drink or smoke while working with pesticides. After it, the clothes are shaken, aired and washed in a soap and soda solution with the addition of synthetic washing powders. After spraying for three to four days, you can not be on the treated area.
In conclusion, it must be emphasized once again that carrying out chemical treatments without taking into account the species composition of pests, their numbers, the degree of development of diseases, as well as neglecting the regulations for the use of chemicals, can lead to environmental pollution, the destruction of beneficial insects, and is dangerous for humans.