- Useful properties of plums
- Choosing planting material
- Choosing the best plum variety
- What you need to know about plum
- Choosing a landing site
- We plant a plum
- Proper care is the key to a rich harvest
- Plum propagation
- Who is harming the plum
- What the plum is sick with
- Gray fruit rot.
- Holey leaf spot.
- Plum pockets.
Useful properties of plums
The bulk plums, covered with a light haze, are attractive in the August season. Few can resist the temptation: the hand itself reaches out to pick the fruit. Rarely will anyone answer negatively to the question: does he love plums? She was able to please everyone: the sweet tooth – with taste, the hostess – with excellent preserves and jams. And in the garden, it looks like an apple or cherry. It is not for nothing that the plum tree is a pride for a gardener: one must be able to grow such a wayward southerner.
Indeed – plum is good not only for its amazing taste, its fruits have medicinal properties.
In addition to the contained vitamin C, magnesium, iron, zinc, one of the most valuable properties of plums is to accumulate vitamin B2, which is responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, the resistance of the nervous system to stress, and the elimination of carcinogens and other harmful substances from the body. There is more vitamin B2 in plums than in other horticultural crops.
Plum fruits are rich in substances that lower blood pressure and strengthen blood vessel walls. Plum has a beneficial effect on the intestines: fiber helps to eliminate cholesterol, pectin substances reduce putrefactive processes in the intestines, neutralize toxic substances that enter the body or are formed in it. Plum is also the most delicate laxative. Healing properties are possessed not only by fruits, but also wood – as a diaphoretic, bark – as an antipyretic, flowers – a laxative, as well as a remedy for diseases of the liver, bladder and metabolic disorders. In addition, flowering trees have a positive effect on humans and calm the nervous system.
In terms of energy nutritional value, plum fruits are second only to grapes and cherries, surpassing apples, pears, apricots, peaches, currants, raspberries and strawberries.
Plum trees are very decorative. Wood is easy to process, and therefore can be successfully used for small crafts.
Choosing planting material
To do this, head to the nursery with a wide piece of plastic wrap, burlap, pencil, and labels. Buy several varieties with different ripening periods, the yield will be higher. When choosing the best seedling, pay attention not only to the variety, but also to the external signs of well-being. Saplings with broken, damaged roots are best set aside immediately. Attach the labels with the names to the seedlings immediately after their purchase, so as not to confuse the varieties later. Wrap the roots with wet burlap, and then wrap with foil so that the fabric does not dry quickly. Always add seedlings brought to the site, even if the planting will be in a few hours.
Choosing the best plum variety
Plum is not widespread in the middle lane. This is due to the fact that the plum itself is not hardy. Therefore, among the variety of species and varieties of plums for growing on your site, it is better to take zoned varieties of the Ussuri and Canadian plums, they are the most resistant to local conditions.
The Ussuriysk I plum grows in the Far East. Tree 5-6 meters… This type of plum is valued for its winter hardiness, it can withstand frosts up to 55 degrees. The best plum varieties obtained from the Ussuri plum (Pionerka, Rakityansky or Lena, Selenit, Uktusskaya, Pavlik), to one degree or another, also possess this valuable property.
Pioneer . Tree up to3m, with a wide spreading crown. Winter hardiness. Begins fruiting in 4 years. Fruits weighing 15-20 g, orange-red, fresh sweet taste. The harvest ripens in the first half of August. Productivity 10-15 Kg from the tree.
Golden cornfield . Tree tall2 mwith a wide crown and branches raised upward. Fruits weighing 1013 g, rounded oval, golden yellow, with a waxy bloom. The pulp is juicy, sweet, of good taste. Fruits ripen in the second half of August, mature. Regular fruiting – 10-15 Kg from the tree.
Rakityansky (Lena) . Tree up to3m, with a wide, spreading crown, prone to thickening. Fruit 19-20 g, yellow, rounded. The pulp is sweet and sour. Ripen by the second half of August. Productivity increases significantly in plantings with other varieties of the Ussuri plum.
Pavlik . Tree up to3 meters… Winter hardy, however, with sudden temperature changes, it can freeze. Fruits weighing 13-16 gdark red. The pulp is juicy, sweet. Ripens in the second half of August, the yield is high.
Selenite . Tree up to4 m, with a wide, well-leafy crown, prone to thickening. Begins fruiting in the 4th year. Fruits weighing 1012 g… Fruit color is yellow, juicy, fresh-sweet taste. Slight bitterness in the skin. Fruits ripen in the second half of August, mature. Bears fruit regularly – 7-12 Kg from the tree.
Uktusskaya . Tree tall2.2 m, with a wide, spreading crown. Begins fruiting in 3-4 years. The yield is high (up to20 Kg), since the annual shoots are already bearing fruit. Fruits weighing 1012 g, dark red, with a thick bluish bloom. The pulp is juicy, dark yellow, dense, sweet-fresh taste. Fruits ripen in the second half of August, mature.
Seligran . A seedling of the Canadian plum, obtained at the Sverdlovsk Experimental Gardening Station. Tree up to4 m, with a wide spreading crown, prone to thickening. Fruits weighing 12-15 g, dark red with a waxy bloom. The pulp is light orange, firm, fresh sweet, good taste. Fruits ripen in the second half of August, mature. The yield is 10-15 Kg from the tree.
What you need to know about plum
In the Urals and in the northern regions of the country, plum most often grows in a bush 2.5-3 meters… Growing plums in the form of a tree is possible only in the middle and southern regions of the country. The life span of a plum is 15-20 years.
The vegetation of the plant begins in March-April, when the air warms up to -6 degrees. First, the buds swell, and then a green cone of leaves and buds appears. In May, with the beginning of flowering, this process ends. Flowering can begin even before the first young leaves appear, it depends on the variety. A good bountiful harvest is ensured last year, when the rudiments of flowers are formed in June-July. This process ends only in the spring. The reason for the poor harvest lies not only in the spring frosts, but also in the forgetfulness of the owner, who did not feed the plum on time. Following the blooming of the leaves, an intensive growth of shoots begins. The variety, climate, soil and proper care largely determine the duration of this period. The growth period is especially important for a young tree – it is for the first time 5-6 years that the crown is formed,
The well-being of the tree depends on the condition of the roots. The root system of the plum is fibrous and well developed. The roots are not deep (20-40 cmfrom the soil level), however, individual roots can penetrate deeper. Plum roots occupy the entire projection of the tree crown, up to the point that they can (closer to the root collar) reach the soil surface. Therefore, when digging up the near-trunk circle, the earth is not turned over, but loosened. The stability of the tree is ensured by skeletal roots (0.3-8 cm). They do not participate in plant nutrition. Such a task is to provide the tree with water and minerals at the overgrown roots (their thickness is less0.3 cm). The better developed the overgrowing roots, the more favorable the conditions for good growth of shoots, leaves, fruits.
Choosing a landing site
When choosing a place to grow plums, you need to take into account all the whims of this lady. Plum is a very picky plant and requires constant attention. Therefore, choose a landing site with the expectation that in winter you will have to visit it more than once – inspect the bark, trample the snow so that the mice do not gnaw the bole. The plum is planted so that there is free access to it (the minimum distance between trees3 meters). Immediately forget about planting near the fence, even if you only have an empty corner there. Unpretentious raspberries and that by the fence wasted away, and you want to plant such a socialite there.
Plum is a southerner, choose warm areas for it, protected from northern winds and well warmed up by the sun. The south side of the garden is a favorite place for plum growing. You can not plant it in lowlands, because in winter the air stagnates there, which leads to freezing of the plant. On a slope, a plum is planted in its upper part.
The more fertile the soil, the better the plum grows. Lighter texture (loam) soils are preferred. The soil must be moist. However, you should not plant plums on marshy soils. The plum tree is moisture-loving, but excess water has a harmful effect on it. When waterlogged, the growth of the plum stops, the leaves turn yellow, the top dries up. The close location of groundwater (up to1.5 m from the soil level) interferes with root growth and significantly cools the soil.
We plant a plum
Your plum will not upset you if planting and caring for it takes place on an already cultivated area, processed and fed. For an autumn planting in the spring, dig up the space reserved for the drain.
You need to dig up the soil within a radius of 1.5-2 metersfrom the intended landing site to a depth of 1-1.5 shovel bayonets, choosing the rhizomes of perennial weeds. For digging, organic and mineral fertilizers should be applied. The plot is leveled, the lumps are broken with a rake and left under steam until autumn.
Before planting a plum, inspect the plant, paying attention to the condition of the roots. For planting, one- or two-year-old seedlings with a good root system are suitable. It is better not to plant a plum with damaged roots – it will not take root and die, but you should not throw out such a tree either. Many gardeners prune the damaged part of the root with a pruner to healthy wood, and then plant as usual.
Plum is planted in planting pits 60-80 cm, depth 50-60 cm… Digging a hole, the soil from the upper fertile layer is folded to one side, and from the lower infertile layer to the other. When the hole is ready, the bottom is dug onto the bayonet of the shovel. An 80- high stake is driven into the center of the pit.100 cm… A mound of prepared soil mixture is poured around the stake.
Prepare it like this (per hole): add 1-2 buckets of humus or compost to the fertile soil removed from the hole (top layer), 150-200 g granular superphosphate, 300-400 gwood ash. Do not apply fresh manure, it will burn the roots.
It is more convenient to plant a plum together – one holds the seedling, lowers it into the hole and straightens the roots, and the second sprinkles them with the prepared soil mixture. The plant is placed near the stake on the north side of it, evenly placing the roots of the seedling and directing their ends down. The height of the stake above the ground should not exceed the size of the plant stem, otherwise, during the wind, the skeletal branches will rub and damage against it. The root collar of the seedling should be slightly (6-8 cm) above the soil level so that after its subsidence the neck is at the same height at which it was in the nursery, that is, directly at the level of the soil surface.
Fertile soil is poured on top of the spread roots and slightly compacted. The hole is covered with the remaining soil and watered at the rate of 1-2 buckets of water per seedling.
After watering, the soil is mulched, and the plant is tied to a stake, covering it and the tree with a rope loop in the form of a figure eight.
Proper care is the key to a rich harvest
All the pre-landing chores and the landing itself were left behind. But it’s not just the fit that’s important, and grooming is just as important. And now the main thing is to properly look after this wayward person, knowing her habits. The whole process of attention to the sink is described. But about the habits and character in a little more detail.
Watering. The character of the plum, as befits a lady, is full of whims. A little oversight of the tree – and you will be left without a crop. First of all, plum is a moisture-loving tree. Therefore, do not be lazy to water it. Just do not overdo it – excess water is harmful to her. The plant should be watered especially well in the spring and early summer periods (at this time flowering, active growth of leaves and shoots occurs) and in late summer – early autumn, when the need for water increases due to the growth of fruits and roots.
After watering, the soil of the trunks is loosened and mulched. Mulching helps to conserve precious moisture, reduce soil temperature in hot weather and increase soil temperature in cold weather.
In a dry autumn in early October, be sure to do the autumn soil moisture recharge by watering the plum bush abundantly.
Fertilizers. Plum in its development annually extracts a significant amount of minerals from the soil. Therefore, the trees need to be fed regularly. In addition, good and correct feeding is the key to a bountiful harvest. The lack of minerals negatively affects the resistance of the plum to weather conditions, which leads, first of all, to the appearance of various diseases.
First of all, find out if your soil is acidic. Plums are difficult to grow on acidic soils. If your soil is still acidic, then for digging, be sure to add lime at the rate of 1 square meter 60-80 g lime.
Fertilizers should be applied seasonally: in the fall, in the first 4 years after planting, 10-12 Kg rotted manure (humus, compost), 40-50 g potassium salt, 120-180 gsuperphosphate; in spring – 60-90 gammonium nitrate. For 5-8 years after planting, the fertilization rate should be doubled. Fertilizers are evenly scattered over the soil before digging, which is carried out in the fall to a depth of20 cm, and in the spring 1215 cm…
Winter hardiness. Plum is extremely temperature sensitive. In harsh winters, the tree can freeze slightly and die. Winter hardiness depends on the variety, age, care, climatic conditions. No matter how hardy the variety is, sudden changes in temperature are equally dangerous for plums. Therefore, in order to somehow protect the tree from frost, you can form it in the form of a stanza (creeping form). In this case, the plum is planted obliquely, with the help of pruning, bending, pinning the branches, they reach the desired shape. Then, in winter, branches covered with snow suffer less from frost. In addition, the stanza form has other advantages, for example, from spring to autumn, the lower layers of the air are always warmer than the upper ones, which has a beneficial effect on the plant.
However (more often in order to protect the tree in winter) it is initially formed in the form of a bush. In the first year after planting, pruning of the bush is required, leaving 2-3 strong shoots, in subsequent years 2-3 shoots are also left from the new growth.
Even winter-hardy tree trunks suffer from cold weather. Wounds and cracks are formed on them from frostbites. To combat such damage, the stems are whitewashed in late autumn with a solution of lime (diluted in 10 liters of water3 Kg fresh slaked lime and 2 Kgclay, and to make the solution stick better, add a little wood glue). Some gardeners repeat this whitewashing several times during the winter and early spring. Spruce branches tied around the trunk well protect against frostbites, winter sunburn and rodents.
If, nevertheless, it happened that the stems were damaged, then in the spring they should be cleaned and coated with garden varnish or oil paint.
The varieties of plums you like can be multiplied. Plum is propagated by seeds, root shoots, cuttings (green and lignified) and grafting. Plum propagation by root shoots is the easiest way. Young 1-2-year-old plants with well-developed aerial parts and roots are suitable for this. Those plants that grow in well-lit places are dug up in the period before bud break or in September-October. When the plant is dug up, then 15-20 cmrecede from the base of the stem. The root strand is cut from both sides so that the horizontal root with the shoots extending from it has a length of about30 cm…
When plums are multiplied by lignified cuttings, they are cut in autumn or early spring (as soon as the snow melts and the soil warms up) 12-15 cm and planted in furrows, burrowing into the soil almost completely, leaving 2-3 buds above the surface.
You can try propagation by root cuttings. This method is more complicated than the previous two. Root cuttings are harvested from mature trees in autumn or early spring. They do it like this. Carefully expose the roots, stepping back from the stem 0.8-1.1 m… Choose roots with a thickness of 0.5-1.5 cmand cut them on both sides. The length of the root cutting should be 12-15 cm… When harvesting in autumn, cuttings are stored in a box in a cold basement, layered with moist moss or sawdust. Those who do not have a basement can be stored in a trench deep50 cm, sprinkling with a mixture of peat and river sand in equal proportions. In early May, the cuttings are planted (under the film) obliquely at a distance of 810 cm, deepening the upper ends by 1-2 cm, the beds are abundantly watered and mulched. Before the shoots appear, they are well watered and shaded. In the first month, the soil should not be allowed to dry out. When several shoots appear from one cutting, the strongest is left. Twice a season, they are fed with nitrogen fertilizers or slurry (1 part of slurry to 10 parts of water). In late autumn, the beds are sprinkled with sawdust or foliage. In the spring of next year, the most developed plants are planted in a permanent place.
Who is harming the plum
In addition to climatic conditions, plum also gets from pests (black plum sawfly, moth and plum aphid). It is important to notice the trouble in time, and it is better to prevent it. Therefore, check the trees regularly to see if there is a sawfly on them. Once found, shake off on a litter in cloudy weather. When the buds open, as well as after flowering (and necessarily if the trees have been attacked by pests) at the end of the leaf fall – treat with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Spray trees with copper sulfate once every four years for prophylaxis.
Folk remedies – herbal decoctions and infusions – are also effective against plum pests. Using them, you need to know that the sooner you put the prepared solution into action, the more effective its action will be. You need to spray the garden in the evening so that the sun does not weaken the effect. The following tinctures are good against aphids, plum sawfly:
Mustard tincture. 100 g dried and chopped mustard is infused for 2 days in 10 l hot water, add more before spraying 10 liters water.
Tincture of wood ash. 2-3 Kg sifted wood ash is poured 10 lhot water. Withstand 2 days (or boil for 30 minutes), filter and spray the plants.
Tincture of onion peels. 200 g onion skins are poured 10 lhot water, stand for a day. The processing is carried out with an interval of 5 days.
Wormwood tincture. 1 kgthe dried herbs are poured with water and boiled for 10-15 minutes in a small amount of water. The broth is cooled and added with water until10 liters… The treatment is repeated after 7 days.
As a preventive measure, do not forget to collect and destroy carrion and rotten fruits. Do not leave fallen foliage and destroy it – plum pests can easily remain in it for the winter. Any autumn garden tidying should end with digging the soil of the trunk circle.
What the plum is sick with
Diseases of plums are annoying with gray rot of fruits (moniliosis), perforated leaf spot (clasternosporia), as well as pockets of plums.
Gray fruit rot.
The causative agent of this plum disease is a mushroom. The disease appears on fruits during the period of filling in the form of a small brown spot, rapidly growing and covering the entire fruit. If you do not start the appropriate treatment, after 8-10 days, yellowish or ash-gray sporulation pads appear on the surface of the affected fetus, located in regular concentric circles. Rotten fruits become dark-gray in color and look varnished (mummified). Most of the diseased fruits fall off, but some of them remain hanging until the next spring and are the main sources of infection. As a rule, fruits with damaged skin are infected. In this regard, damage by the moth, birds, hail contribute to the spread of the disease.
Control measures are:
1) in the cutting and burning of all damaged shoots, inflorescences, branches (cutting the affected inflorescences is best done 15-20 days after flowering, when the line between healthy and diseased tissue is clearly visible);
2) in spraying the soil and trees before bud break and after leaf fall with 1% Bordeaux liquid, iron vitriol (300 g on the 10 l water).
Holey leaf spot.
The causative agent of the disease is a mushroom. It affects leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, young shoots. The disease is detected in early spring. It manifests itself in the form of light brown spots with a brown border, which later fall off, and holes form on the leaves. Fruits are affected with the formation of spots and thickenings, disfiguring the fetus. If you start the disease and leave the plum untreated, it will lead to the death of the shoots and the death of the plum in the future.
1) timely early spring cutting and destruction of affected shoots or branches, burying fallen leaves;
2) early spring treatment with iron vitriol (300 g on the 10 l water).
The disease manifests itself in an excessively ugly growth of ovaries, and instead of fruits – saccular formations – pitted pockets. The fleshy part is wrinkled, green in color. At the end of July, the surface of the affected fruit is covered with a white or dirty-gray waxy bloom containing spores of the fungus. Affected fruits are not suitable for consumption in any form, either fresh or processed.
1) collection and destruction of affected fruits;
2) treatment at the beginning of bud break with a solution of copper sulfate (100 g on the 10 l water).