Potato growing technology

potato growing technology Blog

Potatoes are the people’s favorite

Potatoes are one of the most important and favorite vegetables on our table. It is one of the main food products not only for humans, but also for domestic animals. The potato tubers contain a complex of essential substances: starch, protein, vitamins, minerals. Potatoes are not only a delicious vegetable on our table, they are also a natural medicine. Potato tubers and juice are used to treat colds and neurological diseases, and help with burns. In Russia, potatoes are cultivated almost everywhere. This plant is quite unpretentious and easily adapts to any conditions. The exceptions are areas with a warm climate, since elevated temperatures contribute to the spread of various diseases of the potato. Potatoes work best in temperate regions, although modern technologies and the hard work of breeders make it possible to successfully grow potatoes even in Siberia and the Urals. Despite the unpretentiousness of potatoes and the availability of planting material and care products, not all gardeners achieve good results. Gardeners use various technologies for growing potatoes: in bags and from seeds, in ridges-boxes and under straw, they grow potatoes according to Dutch technology and according to Mittlider. In this article, we will talk about what the standard potato farming technique should be in order to get a good harvest and provide your family with potatoes for the whole winter. Gardeners use various technologies for growing potatoes: in bags and from seeds, in ridges-boxes and under straw, they grow potatoes according to Dutch technology and according to Mittlider. In this article, we will talk about what the standard potato farming technique should be in order to get a good harvest and provide your family with potatoes for the whole winter. Gardeners use various technologies for growing potatoes: in bags and from seeds, in ridges-boxes and under straw, they grow potatoes according to Dutch technology and according to Mittlider. In this article, we will talk about what the standard potato farming technique should be in order to get a good harvest and provide your family with potatoes for the whole winter.

Preparation of planting material

germination of potatoesThe correct technology for growing potatoes is, first of all, the correct preparation of the planting material. When planting large tubers (weighing more than 100g), you can get a larger yield, but when planting large potatoes, too many tubers are consumed. Therefore, for planting, it is better to use tubers weighing 50-100g. You can use smaller tubers or cut larger ones into pieces, but this requires preliminary germination, in addition, small tubers will have to be planted several pieces in one hole. If it is necessary to cut large tubers into several parts, you need to make sure that each part has at least 2-3 sprouts.

In order to get an earlier harvest, the tubers are germinated in the light in a warm room. For the period of germination, it is convenient to place potato tubers on racks, in boxes. Germination usually lasts 35-40 days at a temperature of 12-17 ° C. As a result of germination, strong shoots no more than 2 cm long appear on the tubers. If there is insufficient light during germination, the shoots will turn out to be white and elongated, and the plant grown from such a tuber will be weak. During germination, you need to turn the tubers at least once a week, treat them with a solution of mineral fertilizers or growth stimulants. It will be useful to carry out preventive treatment of tubers with a solution of copper sulfate. Sometimes a wet method of germination is used, for this the tubers are placed in boxes and sprinkled with a layer of peat or sawdust, which need to be kept moist. With this method of germination, tubers lose less nutrients and germination takes half the time. Tubers prepared for planting in the fall can be kept in the light for 10-15 days, thanks to which they acquire a green color, their solanine content increases, such tubers are less affected by diseases and pests.

If the tubers do not have time to germinate by the time of planting, 3-4 days before planting they need to be warmed up at a temperature of 35-40 ° C, this will help the buds to grow faster. Tubers ready for planting should have short, thick shoots. Before planting, sprouted tubers are powdered with ash and sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate (1 g per 10 liters of water).

Growing seedlings of early potatoes

In order to get early potatoes, care and cultivation should begin with planting seedlings. To get healthy seedlings, you need to select healthy tubers and germinate them in the light, as you would with a normal planting. Sprouted tubers are not planted in open ground, but in boxes with soil, where they will grow for 20-22 days. At this time, the seedlings must be kept in a bright place, watered, when the seedlings reach a height of 2-3 cm, you need to feed it with mineral fertilizer. The resulting seedlings can be planted in open ground.

Preparing a site for planting potatoes

planting potatoesTo grow potatoes, you need to set aside an open sunny area. If the groundwater is close to the site, it is better to plant potatoes on ridges or high ridges. The site chosen for planting potatoes must be dug up in the fall, if the soil on the site is acidic, lime or dolomite flour is added during digging. Mineral and organic fertilizers are applied early in the spring. If the soil on the site is heavy, clayey or loamy, then 1 m 2 of soil is applied in a bucket of humus or peat. If the soil is sandy loam or sandy, then in addition to humus and peat, it is necessary to add clay soil, and a mixture of coarse sand, clay soil, humus or compost is introduced into the peat soils. For 1m 2any soil you need to add 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate and a glass of wood ash. If there are no such fertilizers, you can get by with three tablespoons of “Solution”, “Kemira” or other complex mineral fertilizer per 1m 2 . If there is not enough fertilizer, then you can apply them only to the holes where the potatoes will be planted.

After applying all the fertilizers, you can start digging the site. Dig the area to the depth of the shovel bayonet, not forgetting to remove the rhizomes of weeds and larvae of pests.

Early varieties of potatoes are planted both as seedlings and sprouted tubers at the end of April. In case of short-term frosts, the seedlings can be temporarily covered with a film or non-woven material. Mid-season varieties are best planted in the first or second decade of May. The optimal planting time can be determined by measuring the soil temperature at a depth of 12-15 cm. If the soil warms up to 7-8 ° C, then tubers or seedlings can be planted. Planting depth depends on the characteristics of the soil. On light soils, tubers can be buried by 10-12 cm, on heavy clay soils – by 8-10 cm, and on peaty soils no more than 7 cm.

There are the following ways of planting tubers: comby and smooth. With the comb method, the tubers are laid out on the surface of the ground according to the markings, and then they are covered with soil, which is taken between the rows. The height of such ridges is usually 15 cm, and the distance between the ridges is 70 cm. You can also make ridges 20 cm high and 1 m wide. Planting on ridges and ridges protects the plants from excess moisture and improves the thermal regime. Plants on ridges and ridges are placed at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. With a smooth planting method, the tubers are placed in pits prepared in advance, which are then covered with earth.

Caring for potatoes after planting

potato shootsSo the potatoes have been planted, care and cultivation is our next task. A week after planting the tubers, the soil must be loosened with a rake. If a crust forms on the soil or weeds appear, you will have to loosen the soil again, this will facilitate the emergence of seedlings. After the amicable emergence of potato shoots and their reaching a height of 15-20 cm, the first hilling is carried out, especially hilling is necessary where there are heavy and waterlogged soils. Hilling is an excellent means of protecting potato seedlings from late frosts. For hilling, you need to take a hoe and scoop up the earth in small portions to each bush. Before starting hilling and loosening, the potatoes should be fed with organic fertilizer, for example, humus or ash, you can also use mineral fertilizers. In dry weather, potatoes are added, 2-3 liters of water is enough for each bush. It is especially useful to regularly water potatoes of early maturing varieties, they begin to water then. When the tubers reach a size of 1 cm. For late potato varieties, watering during flowering is important.

Top dressing is an extremely important point in proper potato farming. The first feeding is carried out during the active growth of the tops, the second – during budding, the third – during flowering. Since potatoes are grown in fairly large areas, it is easier to randomly fertilize with dry fertilizers. Under each bush, 0.5 teaspoon of urea is applied during the growth of the tops, 1 tablespoon of ash or 1 teaspoon of nitrophosphate during budding, 1 teaspoon of superphosphate during flowering.

Cleaning and storage of potatoes

hilling potatoesEarly potatoes are ready for harvest 2 months after planting. In Siberia and the Urals, harvesting of early-maturing potatoes begins in late July and early August. You can determine the readiness of potatoes for harvesting by the appearance of the bushes: ripe bushes stop blooming, their lower leaves begin to turn yellow. Early potatoes are harvested without waiting for the tops to turn yellow. Do not leave potatoes in the ground for a long time whose tops have died, this reduces the nutrient content of the tuber and contributes to the damage to the tubers by pests. Potatoes cannot be harvested immediately after frost or early in the morning; it is best to do this on a clear, fine day. The bushes are dug in from the side, and then pulled by the tops, the tubers are collected in a bucket. After harvesting the potatoes, the tops are burned. For less damage to the tubers, you can use flat-toothed forks for digging. The dug tubers are dried in the open air for 2-3 hours; in wet weather it is better to do this under a canopy. Dried tubers are sorted by selecting food and seed tubers, diseased or damaged tubers are stacked separately. Rejected potatoes can be used for forage purposes, damaged tubers should be used first. Tubers selected for seed can be planted immediately in a bright place. Potatoes are stored in basements and cellars, piles and trenches at a temperature of + 2-5 ° C. Storage in cellars and basements is the most common way to store potatoes; you can store them in boxes or pour them directly onto the floor in a layer of no more than 1.5 m. The easiest and cheapest way to store potatoes is in piles and trenches, the main thing is that the depth of the trenches is about 2.5 meters, and ventilation is installed in the pile. In the absence of a special storage facility, you can store potatoes in pits at the dacha. To do this, dig a hole up to 2m deep, place potatoes in it with a layer of no more than 1m, cover it with 10 cm <of sand from above, and then completely fill the hole with earth. The pit must be insulated by pouring sawdust, leaves or peat on top of it.

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