The best varieties of potatoes
The people often compare potatoes to the second bread. Potatoes are one of the most beloved and widespread vegetable crops in Russia. However, not all gardeners manage to grow a good potato crop, and even the most experienced of them often fail in this matter. Meanwhile, a good harvest of “second bread” will be only if three rules are observed: a good variety, good planting material, and correct agricultural technology. In the conditions of an ordinary summer cottage, the choice of a variety is of decisive importance.
In order to grow healthy potatoes and provide yourself with “second bread” for the whole winter, you need to use new improved varieties. In our country, there is now a description of more than three hundred zoned potato varieties of domestic and foreign selection, and almost two hundred of them are protected by patents. Choosing a potato variety is of paramount importance for someone who wants to get a good harvest, and not regret the time wasted in the potato beds. A bad variety, even if all the rules of agricultural technology are followed, is unlikely to please with an abundance of large and healthy tubers. In order not to be mistaken when choosing, one must proceed from the climatic and soil conditions of the region. It is impossible to name a variety that will be the best for both Siberia and the Krasnodar Territory. The best variety will be the one that gives the highest yield under specific conditions. Breeders admit that it is impossible to create an ideal variety that will be productive, maturing and resistant to all diseases and pests. Therefore, in order to guarantee yourself a harvest, it is better not to dwell on one variety, but to plant several varieties with different ripening periods. In any case, when choosing a variety, the gardener should first read the description of the variety and only then decide whether such a variety is suitable for him or not.
Ripening dates of potato varieties
All potato varieties can be divided into the following groups:
- early (ripening period is 80-90 days) – Luck, Red Scarlett, Rosara;
- medium early (ripen in 90-100 days) – Adretta, Karat, Gala, Nevsky;
- mid-season (ripen in 100-110 days) – Altair, Skarb, Lugovskoy, Tuleevsky;
- medium late (harvest can be obtained in 110-120 days) – Zhuravinka, Chaika, Saturn;
- late (ripen for more than 120 days) – Zdabytok, Kiwi.
The indicated ripening times are not always exactly observed, since weather conditions always make their own adjustments.
Early and mid-early varieties are distinguished by greater demands on adherence to agricultural techniques, and in order to get a good harvest of early potatoes, you will have to work hard. In addition, they are not intended for long-term storage and are less resistant to disease and pests. Early potatoes are not as productive, starchy and tasty as late ones, but this is compensated by the opportunity to get an early harvest. For autumn-winter consumption and long-term storage, it is better to grow mid-season and late varieties.
Mid-season potato varieties are suitable both for storage and for direct consumption; mid-season potato tubers contain about 15% starch. As a rule, the growing season of mid-season potato varieties coincides with the distribution of late blight, so it is worth choosing mid-season varieties that are resistant to late blight. Harvesting of mid-season varieties begins in August.
Mid-late and late varieties keep well and are suitable for winter consumption. Harvesting late potatoes starts late, in the middle or even at the end of September. Such varieties can be grown without sprouting tubers.
What other varieties of potatoes are there?
In addition to the biological characteristics of potatoes, the culinary characteristics of the varieties are also important for the consumer. Most often, attention is paid to the color of the pulp, which can be creamy, white, yellow and even purple. In addition to the taste itself, properties such as smell, digestibility, absence or presence of darkening of the pulp, both raw and boiled, are also important. According to the degree of cooking, all potato varieties can be divided into 4 groups, and each type is intended for the preparation of certain groups:
- type A. Tubers are not boiled. These potatoes are used for making salads, soups, etc.
- type B. Tubers are poorly boiled, slightly crack during cooking. These varieties are used for soups and toasting.
- type C. Tubers are highly boiled. These potatoes are the most popular among Russians, they are used for boiling and making mashed potatoes.
- type D. Strongly boiled potatoes. These varieties are used only for making mashed potatoes.
Potato varieties differ not only in terms of ripening and taste, but also in resistance to diseases and pests. You need to choose a variety that is resistant to diseases common in the region where potato cultivation is planned. Potato varieties that are resistant to the Colorado potato beetle infestation, unfortunately, still remain a dream, but the right choice of variety may well save potatoes from other, no less dangerous enemies. It is now not recommended to grow potato varieties that are not resistant to nematodes and cancer, these enemies of the potato can destroy most of the crop.
In addition to all of the above, when choosing a variety, such a characteristic as keeping quality is important. The main indicator of keeping quality is the dormant period of tubers, that is, the time during which they do not germinate during storage.
Most popular varieties
Luck. Early maturing, popular high-yielding variety. Suitable for both summer and winter consumption. Tuber weight 90-120 g. Tubers are oval, white, have good taste. The variety is resistant to late blight and black leg.
Red Scarlett. An early ripe variety for table use, together forms tubers. The skin of the tuber is red, the flesh is white. Tuber weight 56-102 g. Resistant to the causative agent of potato cancer, nematode. Differs in high keeping quality of tubers.
Rosara. This is an early maturing, high-yielding variety for table use. Tubers with red skin and yellow pulp weighing 80-115 g. Rosara is resistant to crayfish, scab, potato nematode.
Adretta. Medium early table variety. Tubers with yellow skin and light yellow flesh, good flesh taste. Adretta is a high-yielding, stable, virus-resistant variety.
Gala. Medium-early variety for table use, resistant to the causative agent of cancer and nematodes. Tubers with yellow smooth skin and dark yellow flesh. Tuber weight 71-122 g.
Karatop. An early ripe variety for table use, it forms tubers together, it is resistant to viruses and potato nematode. The peel is yellow, the flesh is light yellow. Tuber weight 58-105 g.
Nevsky. Medium early variety, resistant to Rhizoctonia, Alternaria and Blackleg. Environmentally plastic, can be grown in all regions, suitable for both southern regions and Siberia. Recovers quickly after being hit by the Colorado potato beetle. Tubers weighing 90-130 g, have a beige skin and white pulp.
Kiwi. Late, fruitful variety. Little is affected by the Colorado potato beetle and wireworm. Possesses excellent keeping quality. The pulp of the tubers is crumbly, tasty.
Tuleyevsky. Mid-early variety for table use, resistant to viruses, late blight and scab. The tuber has a yellow skin and flesh.